EDU601 Assignment 2 Solution Fall 2020
Q1: Write a comprehensive note on contribution of Aristotle in the field of Education?
He made pioneering contributions to all fields of philosophy and science, he invented the field of formal logic, and he identified the various scientific disciplines and explored their relationships to each other. Aristotle was also a teacher and founded his own school in Athens, known as the Lyceum.
His views on realism, or the idea that reality exists independent of the human mind and that reality can only be known through rigorous, systematic inquiry, is a fundamental precept of modern education. While Aristotle gave us the methodology of education, his teacher, Plato, was probably the first curriculum designer.
Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, who made important contributions to logic, criticism, rhetoric, physics, biology, psychology, mathematics, metaphysics, ethics, and politics. He was a student of Plato for twenty years but is famous for rejecting Plato’s theory of forms.
Aristotle believed that education was central – the fulfilled person was an educated person. Here I want to focus on those elements of his thought that continue to play a key part in theorizing informal education.
First, his work is a testament to the belief that our thinking and practice as educators must be infused with a clear philosophy of life. There has to be a deep concern for the ethical and political. We have continually to ask what makes for human flourishing? From this we should act to work for that which is good or ‘right’, rather than that which is merely ‘correct’.
Second, along with many others in his time, he placed a strong emphasis on all round and ‘balanced’ development. Play, physical training, music, debate, and the study of science and philosophy were to all have their place in the forming of body, mind and soul. Like Plato before him, he saw such learning happening through life – although with different emphases at different ages.
Third, he looked to both education through reason and education through habit. By the latter he meant learning by doing – ‘Anything that we have to learn to do we learn by the actual doing of it… We become just by doing just acts, temperate by doing temperate ones, brave by doing brave ones. Such learning is complemented by reason – and this involves teaching ‘the causes of things. We can see here a connection with more recent theorists that have emphasized experience, reflection and connecting to theories.
Fourth, and linked to the above, Aristotle bequeathed to us the long-standing categorizing of disciplines into the theoretical, practical and technical. We have suffered at different points from a continuing emphasis in education, after Aristotle, on contemplation as the highest form of human activity. However, many writers have picked up on his concern for the practical – and for practical reasoning. We can this at work, for example, in the work of Carr and Kemmis (1986), and Grundy (1987) when they argue for a concern with process and praxis in education. It has also been a significant element in the reformulation of informal education.
Q 2: Briefly compare the four Educational Philosophies (Perennialism, Essentialism, Reconstructionism, Progressivism), On following Indicators.
Role of the Teacher 2
Methods of Instruction 2
School Activities 2
School Building 2
Perennialism values knowledge that transcends time. This is a subject-centered philosophy. The Goal of a perennialist educator is to teach students to think rationally and develop minds that can think critically. A perennialist classroom aims to be a closely organized and well-disciplined Environment, which develops in students a lifelong quest for the truth. Perennialists believe that Education should epitomize a prepared effort to make these ideas available to students and to Guide their thought processes toward the understanding and appreciation of the great works of literature written by history’s finest thinkers that transcend time and never become Outdated. Perennialists are primarily concerned with the importance of mastery of the content And development of reasoning skills. The adage “the more things change, the more they stay The same” summarizes the perennialists’ perspective on education. In this philosophy skills are Developed in a sequential manner. Here, the teachers are the main actors on the stage.
Essentialism is also a subject-centered philosophy. Essentialism is the educational philosophy of teaching basic skills. This philosophy advocates training the mind. Essentialist educators Focus on transmitting a series of progressively difficult topics and promotion of students to the next level. Subjects are focused on the historical context of the material world and culture
And move sequentially to give a solid understanding of the present day. Essentialism is a Common model in U.S. public schools today. A typical day at an essentialist school might have Seven periods, with students attending a different class each period. The teachers impart Knowledge mainly through conducting lectures, during which students are expected to take notes.
The students are provided with practice worksheets or hands-on projects, followed by an Assessment of the learning material covered during this process. The students continue with the Same daily schedule for a semester or a year. When their assessments show sufficient Competence, they are promoted to the next level to learn the next level of more difficult material. William C. Bagley was one of the most influential advocates of essentialism.
Reconstructionism/Critical Theory. Social reconstructionism is a philosophy that emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society and worldwide democracy. Reconstructionist educators focus on a curriculum that highlights social reform as the aim of education.
Reconstructionism is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks. … The overall purpose of Reconstructionism is to reawaken a sense of the Real in a world where everything has been demonstrated to be an illusion.
Progressivists believe that individuality, progress, and change are fundamental to One’s education. Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to their Lives, progressivists center their curricula on the needs, experiences, interests, and abilities of Students. Progressivists like romantics, believe that education should focus on the whole student, Rather than on the content or the teacher. They emphasize on group activity and group problem Solving so that the students learn through cooperative learning strategies. It is anti-Authoritarian, experimental and visionary and aims to develop problem- solving ability. This educational philosophy stresses that students should test ideas by active experimentation. Learning is rooted in the questions of learners that arise through experiencing the world. Progressivism was developed by John Dewey’s pedagogic theory, being based on Pragmatism. Experience represented the core concept of his philosophy. Some American schools also follow this philosophy.
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