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[Solved] ENG503 Assignment 1 Spring 2020  

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ENG503 Introduction to English Language Teaching Assignment 1 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020


Introduction to English Language Teaching (ENG503)

 

Spring 2020

Assignment No. 1

Total Marks: 20

Lectures: 20-30

 

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Q1. Kachru has presented a ‘three-circle model’ of World Englishes which describes the inner, outer and expanding circles of the spread of English in the world. This model is very useful in understanding the sociolinguistic perspective behind the spread of English all over the world. However, there are some limitations of the model which the scholars of World Englishes have identified. Discuss those limitations in detail.                             (10 Marks)

Q2. Specialized English language teaching is grounded in the social, cognitive and linguistic demands of the academic target situations, and provides focused instruction informed by an understanding of texts and the constraints of academic contexts. Keeping this in view, write a note on the two analyzing procedures used for developing a language programme.      (5+5=10 Marks)

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admin
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ENG503 Introduction to English Language Teaching Assignment 1 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020


ENG503 Assignment 1 Solution idea:

Credit: Maha Malik

 

Q1. Kachru has presented a ‘three-circle model’ of World Englishes which describes the inner, outer and expanding circles of the spread of English in the world. This model is very useful in understanding the sociolinguistic perspective behind the spread of English all over the world. However, there are some limitations of the model which the scholars of World Englishes have identified.

Discuss those limitations in detail.

(10 Marks)

   

Lesson 24 (Topic 128) last paragraphs

 

 

World Englishes and Standard English was originally hotly debated by Quirk (1985, 1990) and Kachru (1985, 1991). Quirk (1990), in his discussion of Englishes in various contexts especially in the Outer-Circle countries, suggested that these varieties of English be just interference varieties and teachers of English were advised to focus on native norms and native like performance and stressed the need to uphold one common standard in the use of English not only in the Inner Circle countries but also in others. He also pointed out that a common standard of use for written as well as spoken English was necessary to regulate the use of English in different contexts. He suggested this possibly for the fear that the language (English) would divide up into unintelligible varies or different forms, which would result in its loosing the function of international communication. In response to him, Kachru (1985), on the other hand, claimed that such norms as speech acts and registers were irrelevant to the sociolinguistic reality in which members of the Outer Circle use English. However, he did not mention that what he said might also be relevant to English as a Lingua Franca and the use of English in the Expanding Circle.

Kachru also believed that acknowledging a variety of norms would not lead to a lack of intelligibility among different users of English and in a way, Widdowson (1994) supported Kachru saying that many bilingual users of English acquire the language in educational contexts, which put emphasis on a particular standard a nd tend to ensure some unifying forms. Kachru (1985) suggested challenging traditional notions of standardization and models as they tend to be related to only Inner -Circle users: … the global diffusion of English has taken an interesting turn: the native speakers of this language seem to have lost the exclusive prerogative to control its standardization; in fact, if current statistics are any indication, they have become a minority. This sociolinguistics fact must be accepted and its implication recognized. What we need now are new paradigms and perspectives for linguistics and pedagogical research and for understanding the linguistic creativity in multilingual situations across cultures. (p. 30)

Widdowson (1994) agreed with the Kachru’s statement against Standard English and the ownership, maintaining that native speakers cannot claim ownership of English: How English develops in the world is no business whatsoever of native speakers in England, the United States, or anywhere else. They have no say in the matter, no right to intervene or pass judgment. They are irrelevant. The very fact that English is an international language means that no nation can have custody over it. To grant such custody of the language is necessarily to arrest its development and so undermine its international status. It is a matter of considerable pride and satisfaction for native speakers of English that their language is an international means of communication. But the point is that it is only international to the extent that it is not their language. It is not a possession which they lease out to others, while retaining the freehold. Other people actually own it. (p. 385)

In addition to the standardization, Kachru’s main argument against IL theory was that Outer Circle English speakers were not trying to identify with Inner Circle speakers or native speakers. That is, they were not interested in the norms of English based in Inner Circle such as requesting and complaining. Thus, he criticized the attempts to label the Englishes in the Outer Circle as deviant or deficient and fossilized since these views were not considering the local Englishes (Outer Circle) and the sociocultural context. He was also against the label ‘errors’ since again utterances which are considered as errors may not apply to the local Englishes as they may be perfectly acceptable.

 

 

Q2. Specialized English language teaching is grounded in the social, cognitive and linguistic demands of the academic target situations, and provides focused instruction informed by an understanding of texts and the constraints of academic contexts. Keeping this in view, write a note on the two analyzing procedures used for developing a language programme. (5+5=10 Marks)

 

Topic 164,165

 

Need Analysis

Need analysis is a procedure used to collect information about learners’ needs. It is a distinct and necessary phase in planning educational programs, emerged in the 1960s, as part of the systems approach to curriculum development and was part of the prevalent philosophy of educational accountability. It is introduced into language teaching through the ESP movement. From1960s, the demand for specialized language programs grew and applied linguists began to employ need analysis procedures in language teaching. Need analysis in language teaching may be used for a number of different purposes:

  • To find out what language skills a learner needs in order to perform a particular role, such as sales manager, tour guide, or university student.
  • To help determine if an existing course adequately addresses the needs of potential students.
  • To determine which students from a group are most in need of training in particular language skills.
  • To identify a change of direction that people in a reference group feel is important.
  • To identify a gap between what students are able to do and what they need to be able to do.
  • To collect information about a particular problem learners are experiencing.
  • To assess their level of language acquisition in their native language and in English.

Thus, need analysis basically collect information that can be used to develop a profile of the language needs of a group of learners in order to be able to make decisions about the goals and content of a language course.

 

 

Situational Analysis

It is an analysis of factors in the context of a planned or present curriculum project that is made in order to assess their potential impact on the project. These factors may be political, social, economic or institutional, and complements the information gathered during needs analysis. It is sometimes considered as a dimension of needs analysis, and can be regarded as an aspect of evaluation. The goal of situation analysis is to identify key factors that might positively or negatively affect the implementation of a curriculum plan. This is sometimes known as a SWOT analysis because it involves an examination of a language program’s internal strengths and weaknesses in addition to external opportunities and threats to the existence or successful operation of the language program.

Language programs are carried out in particular contexts and situations and the particular variables that come into play in a specific situation are often they key determinants of the success of a program. Each context for a curriculum or innovation thus contains factors that can potentially facilitate the change or hinders its successfu l implementation. It is important, therefore, to identify what these factors are and what their potential effects might be when planning a curriculum change. It helps identify potential obstacles to implementing a curriculum project and factors that need to be considered when planning the parameters of a project. The next step in curriculum planning involves using the information collected during needs analysis and situation analysis as the basis for developing program goals and objectives. The procedures are used in situation analysis are as follow:

  1. Consultation with representatives of as many relevant groups as possible, such as parents, teachers, administrators and government officials.
  2. Study and analysis of relevant documents such as course appraisal documents, government reports, guidelines and policy papers, teaching materials, curriculum documents.
  3. Observation of teachers and students in relevant learning settings.
  4. Surveys of options of relevant parties.
  5. Review of available literature related to the issue.

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