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[Solved] ENG505 Assignment 1 Spring 2020


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ENG505 Language Learning Theories Assignment 1 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020


Q1. An awareness of the difference between BICS and CALP can help educationprofessionals understand why an English language learner may speak well in socialsituations and yet lag behind peers academically. Keeping in view, write in detailabout some of the ways of  BICS  and  CALP that  support  language   development.   (5+5=10 Marks)

 

Q2. Pica (2005) mentions that ‘as teachers and researchers, we cannot work in isolationto each other if we are to help our students, meet their needs and accomplish theirgoals’. Justify your views with reference to real classroom situation for bridging language learning research and language education.
(10 Marks)

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admin
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Joined: 4 years ago
Posts: 6752
Topic starter  

ENG505 Language Learning Theories Assignment 1 Solution & Discussion Spring 2020


ENG505 Assignment 1 Solution idea:

 

Q1. An awareness of the difference between BICS and CALP can

help educationprofessionals understand why an English language learner may speak well in socialsituations and yet lag behind peers academically. Keeping in view, write in detailabout some of the ways of  BICS  and  CALP that  support  language   development.   (5+5=10 Marks)

 

BICS:

According to Cummins, Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are considered to be not very demanding as they are the language skills needed in social situations. Being engaged in day-today language process, these skills require social interaction which is usually context driven. According to Baker (2006), ‘BICS is said to occur when there are contextual supports and props for language delivery. Face-to-face ‘context embedded’ situations provide, for example, non-verbal support to secure understanding. Actions with eyes and hands, instant feedback, cues, and clues support verbal language.’

Some of the examples of BICS are:

  • Observing speakers’non-verbal behavior (gestures, facial expressions and eye actions)
  • Observing others’ reactions
  • Using voice cues such as phrasing, intonations, and stress
  • Observing pictures, concrete objects, and other contextual cues

BICS are primarily concerned with conversational fluency (Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills) in the second language; whereas, CALP relates to the use of language in decontextualized academic situations (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency).

BICS: Suggested Activities

BICS is about the language skills that students need to get through the day in face-to-face situations (Chandy, 2012).

  • Visuals: pictures, books and magazines with pictures, photos, objects, maps, charts, graphic organizers, drawings, role-playing, games,
  • Simplified language and texts, translations, summaries of texts by peers

 

CALP

Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) is a term proposed by Jim Cummins which refers to the stage of learning that learners go through after they have mastered social language communication skills. It is the stage where the development of academic language proficiency takes place in context reduced academic situations. ‘Where language is disembedded the situation is often referred to as context reduced’ (Baker, 2006, p. 174). In CALP, development of academic language is often abstract, and non-verbal clues are absent. One’s cultural/linguistic knowledge is often required for complete comprehension. Cummins argues that ‘teachers are unaware of the need for explicit teaching of academic language.’

CALP: Suggested Activities

  • Writing story innovations
  • Holding book reviews
  • Enacting plays
  • Discussing what you have read
  • Collecting words

 

Q2. Pica (2005) mentions that ‘as teachers and researchers, we cannot work in isolationto each other if we are to help our students, meet their needs and accomplish theirgoals’. Justify your views with reference to real classroom situation for bridging language learning research and language education.
(10 Marks)

Teaching devoid of research is viewed as obsolete. Language teachers are required to inculcate research in their teaching practices to keep pace with the latest methodologies. Knowledge is constructed in the context of the environment in which it is encountered through the social and collaborative process (Kanuka & Anderson, 1999). The teacher in the contemporary scenario is viewed as a consultant whose role is not to only impart knowledge but also negotiate with students for effective outcomes. The following factors are vital for bridging language learning research and language education:

1) Needs analysis: Needs Analysis calls for ‘situations where the student has some specific reasons to learn a language’ (Harmer, 1983, p. 1).

2) Determining methodologies include:

  • Grammar Translation
  • Direct Method
  • Audio-Lingual Method
  • Situational Language Learning
  • Suggestopedia
  • The Silent Way
  • Total Physical Response
  • Community Language Learning
  • Communicative Language Teaching
  • Task Based Learning

3) Evaluation includes:

  • Placement assessment
  • Observation of learning
  • Short-term achievement assessment
  • Diagnostic achievement assessment
  • Proficiency assessment

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